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    1. “反公地悲劇”下電梯加裝的集體行動何以可能?

      發布時間:2022-07-25

      中文標題:“反公地悲劇”下電梯加裝的集體行動何以可能?
      英文標題:How Is the Collective Action of Elevator Installation Possible under the Tragedy of Anti Commons?

       

      作者信息
      張雪 重慶大學建筑城規學院碩士研究生
      彭坤燾 重慶大學建筑城規學院副教授,山地城鎮建設與新技術教育部重點實驗室

       

      摘要 新時期城市更新中,電梯加裝作為一項“俱樂部產品”①供給,存在利益分配失衡、潛在安全風險、降低生活環境品質等潛在負外部性問題,已成為住宅適老化改造的難點。由于集體選擇規則失靈,電梯加裝經常陷入集體行動困境,出現“反公地悲劇”。為此,需要政府進行有效干預,在不減損社區自治能力的基礎上,合理確定制度設計。從影響電梯加裝成功率的制度因素來看,主要包括產權界定、社會資本和制度環境三個方面,而土地使用權公有、社會資本高、政策合理引導是最優組合。為了提升電梯加裝的成功率,有必要探索各類型促進合作的助推舉措,創新集體選擇的投票機制,并優化制度環境,為電梯加裝的自組織供給模式提供克服集體行動困境的可行路徑。


      關鍵詞 集體行動;反公地悲??;電梯加裝;制度設計

       

      Abstract In the new era of urban renewal, elevator installation, as a club product supply, has potential negative externalities, such as imbalance of interest distribution, potential safety risks, reducing the quality of living environment and so on, which has become the difficulty of residential aging transformation. Due to the failure of collective choice rules, elevator installation often falls into the dilemma of collective action, resulting in the tragedy of anti Commons. Therefore, the elevator installation needs the effective intervention of the government, and the system design should be reasonably determined on the basis of not reducing the ability of community autonomy. From the perspective of institutional factors affecting the success rate of elevator installation, including property rights definition, social capital and institutional environment, the public ownership of land use right, high social capital and reasonable policy guidance are the optimal combination. In order to improve the success rate, it is necessary to explore various feasible boosting measures to promote cooperation, innovate the collective choice voting mechanism, and optimize the institutional environment, so as to provide a feasible path to overcome the dilemma of collective action for the self-organization supply mode of elevator installation.


      Keywords collective action; the tragedy of anti-commons; elevator installation; system design

       

      來源:《城鄉規劃》2021 NO.5

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